Sources & Data

 

Sources

 

1. This assessment is based on the registration of homicides returned by county in the Annual Reports of the Registrar General, tabulated by county in Andy Bielenberg, ‘Fatalities in the Irish Revolution’, in John Crowley et al., The Atlas of the Irish Revolution (Cork, 2017), in addition to a preliminary breakdown of fatalities given by county in Eunan O’Halpin, ‘Counting Terror: Bloody Sunday and the Dead of the Irish Revolution’, in David Fitzpatrick, ed., Terror in Ireland, 1916-1923 (Dublin, 2012), 152.

 

2. While most of the fatalities named in Hart’s text appear in our database, there were a few for which we could find no record indicating that the persons in question had died, while at least one was classified incorrectly. For example, Joseph Bolster of Banteer, reputedly killed for his refusal to contribute to the railway strikers’ fund, could not be found in the police reports cited by Hart or in any other source that we examined; and William Vanston, reputedly of Douglas, was actually shot in Queen’s County. In addition, we have found no record to demonstrate that a ‘Din Din’ Riordan was killed. Hart reports two Volunteer deaths in a bomb explosion in Cork city in 1919, when in fact there was only one. See Peter Hart, The IRA and Its Enemies: Violence and Community in Cork, 1916-1923 (Oxford, 1998). The removal of these doubtful cases would reduce Hart’s total, but other researchers may be able to locate sources to confirm the deaths of some; we have not included them.

 

3. For example, an IRA witness recorded that John Good of Cork city had been shot dead. See Michael Murphy’s Witness Statement 1547, 38 (Bureau of Military History [hereafter BMH], Dublin). But the Cork Weekly News of 19 March 1921 reported that Good had been transferred to the Cork Central Military Hospital and that his condition was not regarded as serious.  We have not included him. He has been counted as a death, however, by Gerard Murphy in his book The Year of Disappearances: Political Killings in Cork, 1921-1922 (Dublin, 2010), 41, 282. Murphy also includes others for whom we have not found plausible evidence.   

 

4. Times (London), 9, 10, 11 Sept. 1919.

 

5. Seán A. Murphy, Kilmichael: A Battlefield Study (Skibbereen, 2014).

 

6. William J. Lowe, ‘The War against the R.I.C., 1919-21’, Eire-Ireland 37:3-4 (Fall/Winter 2002).

 

7. Sinn Féin and Republican Suspects (Timothy Quinlisk), CO 904/213/365 (National Archives, Kew); Irish Independent, 23 Feb. 1920.

 

8. William Sheehan, A Hard Local War: The British Army and the Guerrilla War in Cork, 1919-1921 (Stroud, Gloucestershire, 2011), 158.

 

9. Ibid.

 

10. See, for example, The Last Post (2nd ed., Dublin, 1985); Commonwealth War Graves Commission; Richard Abbott, Police Casualties in Ireland, 1919-1922 (Cork and Dublin, 2000). For the IRA in Co. Cork the Roll of Honour of the Cork No. 1 Brigade, published in 1963 in a pamphlet on the Republican Plot in St Finbarr’s Cemetery in Cork city, provides the most comprehensive and exacting return for any brigade area in the county and covers the one with by far the highest fatalities. Copies of this pamphlet are deposited in the Cork Public Museum, Fitzgerald Park, Cork city, and in Special Collections, Q-1, the Boole Library, University College Cork (MP 941.5081 BRIO).  

 

11.  With regard to the attack at Furious Pier on Bere Island, one witness declared: ‘This operation was carried out in response to an order from H.Q., 1st Southern Division, and as a reprisal for the execution of I.R.A. prisoners in Cork.’ See Eugene Dunne’s WS 1537, 8 (BMH). See also Daniel Cashman’s WS 1523, 12 (BMH); Florence O’Donoghue, No Other Law: The Story of Liam Lynch and the Irish Republican Army, 1916-1923 (Dublin, 1954), 154-58. Attacks in Kerry and Limerick on the same date resulted in the deaths of two additional policemen. See Abbott, Police Casualties, 239-41.

 

12. Dorothy Macardle provides a full list of those executed in The Irish Republic (Corgi Books ed., London, 1968), 912-13. County Cork accounted for 13 of the 24 executions; these 13 were all carried out in Cork city in 1921. 

 

13. Murphy, Year of Disappearances, passim. Recently revealed pension evidence suggests that killings in the Knockraha area and the Rea (which may include a number of undocumented cases) conform to this pattern. Killings largely took place during the War of Independence—roughly in the year leading up to the Truce in July 1921, with few killed there before or after this window. See Pension Evidence of Edward Moloney, MSP34/REF27648 (Military Archives, Dublin). The problem with much of the evidence relating to killings at Knockraha is that the critical evidence on numbers is directly connected with Martin Corry, a highly problematic witness. Question marks, for example, must be raised around his claims to have killed and disappeared 18 Cameron Highlanders. For the War of Independence period there is limited documentary evidence to verify these claims. Disappearances of soldiers from other regiments stationed in County Cork, such as the Manchesters, or indeed disappearances from the RIC, in most cases appear to have left some documentary trail. The possibility that Corry was grossly exaggerating, or even falsifying the evidence, needs to be interrogated more critically.

 

14. We therefore do not include, for example, Terence MacSwiney, the Lord Mayor of Cork who died on hunger strike in Britain (see Francis Costello, Enduring the Most: The Life and Death of Terence MacSwiney [Dingle, 1995]), the civilian George Tilson, who cut his own throat on a train destined for London (see John Borgonovo, Spies, Informers, and the ‘Anti-Sinn Féin’ Society: The Intelligence War in Cork City, 1920-1921 [Dublin, 2007]), or Second Lieutenant A.F.M. Towers, fatally wounded at Crossbarry, who later died in Britain in 1923 (see W. H. Kautt, Ambushes and Armour, 1919-1921: The Irish Rebellion [Dublin, 2010], 151, fn 70).

 

15. We have excluded the following persons who died (among others for similar reasons): Michael Blanchfield (CWN, 27 Dec. 1919), whose death appears to resulted from a robbery; one Brady (Charles Brown’s WS 873, 25-26 [BMH]), for whom we could not find adequate sources; Denis Lehane (Michael Leahy Interview, Ernie O’Malley Notebooks, P17b/108 [University College Dublin Archives, hereafter UCDA]), for whom we could discover only one source naming him; and Patrick Toomey or Twomey, whose death was described by an Auxiliary who named him (http://www.theauxiliaries.com/men-alphabetical/men-c/cafferata-ro/diary/cafferata-diary.html [accessed 27 April 2016]). Macroom Volunteer leader Daniel Corkery made a possible reference to this death (without naming the victim) in Ernie O’Malley Notebook, Interview with Daniel Corkery (P17b/111, UCDA), but the date remains uncertain. The Methodist Gilbert Fenton was shot as a suspected spy by the IRA on 7 February 1921; he died many months later, on 19 October 1921, at the age of 77, but probably as a result of his wounding (CE, 8 Feb. 1921; CCE, 12 Feb. 1921; SS, 25 June 1921; Irish Times, 22 Oct. 1921).

Tables 

 

Note: In Table 1 the assumption is made that 7 of the 8 civilians killed or mortally wounded in the IRA train ambush at Upton on 15 February 1921 were victims of the IRA, but that the dead signalman John Sisk was a victim of crown forces. The British army fatalities returned in Table 2 include a few other members of the British armed forces such as naval personnel (including coastguards).

 

Table 1 Data

Table 1: Intentional Killings (in Which Killers Were Identified) in County Cork, 1919-21

 

Table 2 Data

Table 2: All Deaths in County Cork during the War of Independence by Month and Year

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